Up Learn – A Level Chemistry (aqa) – Organic Synthesis
Map of Organic Synthesis: Part 2
Outlining half of the organic reactions you’ll learn in Y13
So far, we’ve looked at these year 13 organic reactions.
Now, we’re going to complete this diagram!
First off, we’ve seen that we can react an alcohol and carboxylic acid together to form an ester
For this reaction, we heat the alcohol and carboxylic acid together with an acid catalyst.
And we can hydrolyse esters under either
We can hydrolyse esters under either acidic or alkaline conditions.
Next, we saw that we can convert an aldehyde or ketone into a hydroxynitrile
For this reaction, we need…
To produce a hydroxynitrile, we typically react the aldehyde or ketone with potassium cyanide and sulfuric acid
This is an example of a nucleophilic addition reaction.
Finally, we saw a few more nucleophilic addition elimination reactions with acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides
We saw that we can convert them into an ester by reacting them with…
We can convert an acyl chloride or acid anhydride into an ester by reacting them with an alcohol
And we can convert them into a carboxylic acid by reacting them with…
We can convert an acyl chloride or acid anhydride into a carboxylic acid by reacting them with water.
And this is our complete diagram for organic synthesis!
Now, in the exam, you could be asked to identify the products that form from any one of these reactions.
The reagents and conditions needed.
Or name the type of reaction.
However, this diagram only focuses on aliphatic chemistry
So, we’ll take a look at the reactions we’ve seen with aromatic compounds, next!
To sum up, our diagram for aliphatic organic synthesis looks like…
Our diagram for aliphatic organic synthesis looks like this.